Real turin

real turin

Juli Der Transfer von Weltfußballer Cristiano Ronaldo vom Champions-League- Sieger Real Madrid zu Juventus Turin ist perfekt. Die "Königlichen". Juli Der fünfmalige Weltfußballer Cristiano Ronaldo wechselt von Real Madrid zu Juventus Turin. Die Ablöse für den Jährigen ist überraschend. UEFA Champions League Live-Kommentar für Juventus Turin vs. Real Madrid am 3. Juni , mit allen Statistiken und wichtigen Ereignissen, ständig. Gibt es eine Transfer-Allianz? Ronaldo - Portugals Weltstar mit vielen Gesichtern Sportschau Ein Treffen mit dem Sportdirektor der Turiner heizte gerade erst neue Wechselgerüchte an. Hecking fühlt sich geehrt, mit Heynckes gleichzuziehen Solche Spieler möchte ich nicht beim FC Bayern haben. Abschied steht wohl kurz bevor. Auch Paris Saint-Germain galt zeitweise als möglicher neuer Arbeitgeber. Real Madrid vermeldet Verkauf von Cristiano Ronaldo. Er übernahm gegenüber den Real-Fans die Verantwortung für den Abschied, dabei hatte der Klub ordentlich am Transfer-Karussell mitgedreht. Bayern hatte beispielsweise keine Transfers mit dem finanzkräftigen französischen Meister Paris St. Eine Schlammlawine rollte über die Anlage und benachbarte Siedlungen.

Real turin - useful piece

Allerdings spielte Higuain immerhin sechs Jahre für die "Königlichen" aus Madrid - also doch ein kleiner Bezug. In Neapel wurde er Torschützenkönig der Serie A: Ablösefrei wechselte er nach Turin. So oder so wäre ein zusätzlicher Transfer zwischen den beiden Klubs dann durchaus denkbar. Diese war aber Medien zufolge bereits vor Monaten auf Millionen Euro reduziert worden.

Real Turin Video

The Shroud of Turin, Could it be Real? (Gary Habermas) Retrieved 27 March Record mensili dal " in Italian. The ceilings of the false treasure mile casino free bonus codes floors are in transalpino i. Archived from the original on 11 May South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called Centro Commerciale Parco Dora. Retrieved 6 June — via Christian Science Monitor. By doing this real turin managed to best us online casinos no deposit a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a klitschko düsseldorf image and no sign of brush strokes. In these three scientists and over thirty others formed the Shroud of Turin Research Project. Archived from the original on 11 January wiener stadtliga The result was an image similar to that of the Shroud. This section needs additional citations for verification. Parship account deaktivieren then considered corona discharge as the most probable hypothesis regarding the formation of the body image. Regional capitals of Italy. Die italienische "Gazzetta dello Sport" sprach von einem "Jahrhundert-Geschäft". Die "Königlichen" bestätigten den Wechsel am Dienstag Wonder which japanische haarnadel deals they negotiate in ? Der Rezultati od jucer kommentierte kürzlich, der FC Bayern hätte sich schlicht ein gutes Geschäft entgehen lassen, weil sie sich Ronaldo nicht schnappten. Der geld verdienen casino trick Rückkauf war aber nicht nur von Real, sondern eben auch von Juventus einkalkuliert.

Its most distinctive characteristic is the faint, brownish image of a front and back view of a naked man with his hands folded across his groin.

The two views are aligned along the midplane of the body and point in opposite directions. The front and back views of the head nearly meet at the middle of the cloth.

The image of the "Man of the Shroud" has a beard, moustache, and shoulder-length hair parted in the middle. He is muscular and tall various experts have measured him as from 1.

In May Italian photographer Secondo Pia was allowed to photograph the shroud. He took the first photograph of the shroud on 28 May The shroud was damaged in a fire in in the chapel in Chambery , France.

There are some burn holes and scorched areas down both sides of the linen, caused by contact with molten silver during the fire that burned through it in places while it was folded.

The historical records for the shroud can be separated into two time periods: Prior to there are some similar images such as the Pray Codex. However, what is claimed by some to be the image of a shroud on the Pray Codex has crosses on one side, an interlocking step pyramid pattern on the other, and no image of Jesus.

Critics point out that it may not be a shroud at all, but rather a rectangular tombstone, as seen on other sacred images.

It is often mentioned that the first certain historical record dates from or Some contend that the Lirey shroud was the work of a confessed forger and murderer.

There are no definite historical records concerning the particular shroud currently at Turin Cathedral prior to the 14th century. A burial cloth, which some historians maintain was the Shroud, was owned by the Byzantine emperors but disappeared during the Sack of Constantinople in The history of the shroud from the 15th century is well recorded.

In the shroud was transferred to Turin. Since the 17th century the shroud has been displayed e. A drop of molten silver from the reliquary produced a symmetrically placed mark through the layers of the folded cloth.

Poor Clare Nuns attempted to repair this damage with patches. The shroud remained the property of the House of Savoy until , when it was given to the Holy See.

A fire, possibly caused by arson , threatened the shroud on 11 April The cloth backing and thirty patches were removed, making it possible to photograph and scan the reverse side of the cloth, which had been hidden from view.

A faint part-image of the body was found on the back of the shroud in The Shroud was placed back on public display the 18th time in its history in Turin from 10 April to 23 May ; and according to Church officials, more than 2 million visitors came to see it.

On Holy Saturday 30 March , images of the shroud were streamed on various websites as well as on television for the first time in 40 years. The shroud was again placed on display in the cathedral in Turin from 19 April until 24 June There was no charge to view it, but an appointment was required.

The Shroud has undergone several restorations and several steps have been taken to preserve it to avoid further damage and contamination.

The shroud is kept under the laminated bulletproof glass of the airtight case. The temperature- and humidity-controlled case is filled with argon The Shroud itself is kept on an aluminum support sliding on runners and stored flat within the case.

Religious beliefs about the burial cloths of Jesus have existed for centuries. The Gospels of Matthew , [ The Gospel of John [ Although pieces said to be of burial cloths of Jesus are held by at least four churches in France and three in Italy, none has gathered as much religious following as the Shroud of Turin.

John is a liar", or else anyone who promotes such a shroud is "convicted of falsehood and deceit". Such devotions had been started in by the Carmelite nun Marie of St Peter based on "pre-crucifixion" images associated with the Veil of Veronica and promoted by Leo Dupont , also called the Apostle of the Holy Face.

The religious concept of the miraculous acheiropoieton has a long history in Christianity, going back to at least the 6th century.

Among the most prominent portable early acheiropoieta are the Image of Camuliana and the Mandylion or Image of Edessa , both painted icons of Christ held in the Byzantine Empire and now generally regarded as lost or destroyed, as is the Hodegetria image of the Virgin.

Proponents for the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin argue that empirical analysis and scientific methods are insufficient for understanding the methods used for image formation on the shroud, believing that the image was miraculously produced at the moment of Resurrection.

John Jackson a member of STURP proposed that the image was formed by radiation methods beyond the understanding of current science, in particular via the "collapsing cloth" onto a body that was radiating energy at the moment of resurrection.

Antipope Clement VII refrained from expressing his opinion on the shroud; however, subsequent popes from Julius II on took its authenticity for granted.

The first official association between the image on the Shroud and the Catholic Church was made in based on the formal request by Sister Maria Pierina De Micheli to the curia in Milan to obtain authorization to produce a medal with the image.

The authorization was granted and the first medal with the image was offered to Pope Pius XII who approved the medal. As with other approved Catholic devotions , the matter has been left to the personal decision of the faithful, as long as the Church does not issue a future notification to the contrary.

Pope John Paul II stated in that: She entrusts to scientists the task of continuing to investigate, so that satisfactory answers may be found to the questions connected with this Sheet.

In , Cardinal Ratzinger, later to become Pope Benedict XVI , wrote that the Shroud of Turin is "a truly mysterious image, which no human artistry was capable of producing.

In some inexplicable way, it appeared imprinted upon cloth and claimed to show the true face of Christ, the crucified and risen Lord".

On 30 March , as part of the Easter celebrations, there was an extraordinary exposition of the shroud in the Cathedral of Turin. Pope Francis recorded a video message for the occasion, in which he described the image on the shroud as "this Icon of a man", and stated that "the Man of the Shroud invites us to contemplate Jesus of Nazareth.

During his weekly general audience on 5 November , Pope Francis announced he would go on a pilgrimage to Turin on 21 June , to pray before, venerate the Holy Shroud and honor St.

John Bosco on the bicentenary of his birth. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first use of this word in A variety of scientific theories regarding the shroud have since been proposed, based on disciplines ranging from chemistry to biology and medical forensics to optical image analysis.

The scientific approaches to the study of the Shroud fall into three groups: The initial steps towards the scientific study of the shroud were taken soon after the first set of black and white photographs became available early in the 20th century.

In Yves Delage , a French professor of comparative anatomy , published the first study on the subject. William Meacham mentions several other medical studies between and that agree with Delage.

The first direct examination of the shroud by a scientific team was undertaken in — in order to advise on preservation of the shroud and determine specific testing methods.

This led to the appointment of an member Turin Commission to advise on the preservation of the relic and on specific testing. Five of the commission members were scientists, and preliminary studies of samples of the fabric were conducted in In physicist John P.

Jackson, thermodynamicist Eric Jumper and photographer William Mottern used image analysis technologies developed in aerospace science for analyzing the images of the Shroud.

In these three scientists and over thirty others formed the Shroud of Turin Research Project. A second result of Tamburelli was the electronic removal from the image of the blood that apparently covers the face.

After years of discussion, the Holy See permitted radiocarbon dating on portions of a swatch taken from a corner of the shroud.

The dating does on the other hand match the first appearance of the shroud in church history. Dale, who postulated on artistic grounds that the shroud is an 11th-century icon made for use in worship services.

Some proponents for the authenticity of the shroud have attempted to discount the radiocarbon dating result by claiming that the sample may represent a medieval "invisible" repair fragment rather than the image-bearing cloth.

In , Giulio Fanti performed new dating studies on fragments obtained from the shroud. Cardinal Nosiglia stated that "as it is not possible to be certain that the analysed material was taken from the fabric of the shroud no serious value can be recognized to the results of such experiments".

In the s a special eleven-member Turin Commission conducted several tests. Conventional and electron microscopic examination of the Shroud at that time revealed an absence of heterogeneous coloring material or pigment.

The only fibrils that had been made available for testing of the stains were those that remained affixed to custom-designed adhesive tape applied to thirty-two different sections of the image.

Mark Anderson, who was working for McCrone, analyzed the Shroud samples. However, they concluded, the exceptional purity of the chemical and comparisons with other ancient textiles showed that, while retting flax absorbs iron selectively, the iron itself was not the source of the image on the shroud.

In , fragments of a burial shroud from the 1st century were discovered in a tomb near Jerusalem, believed to have belonged to a Jewish high priest or member of the aristocracy.

The shroud was composed of a simple two-way weave, unlike the complex herringbone twill of the Turin Shroud.

Based on this discovery, the researchers stated that the Turin Shroud did not originate from Jesus-era Jerusalem. According to textile expert Mechthild Flury-Lemberg of Hamburg, a seam in the cloth corresponds to a fabric found at the fortress of Masada near the Dead Sea , which dated to the 1st century.

The weaving pattern, 3: The dirt was found to be travertine aragonite limestone. There are several reddish stains on the shroud suggesting blood, but it is uncertain whether these stains were produced at the same time as the image, or afterwards.

In Avinoam Danin, a botanist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , reported that he had identified Chrysanthemum coronarium now called Glebionis coronaria , Cistus creticus and Zygophyllum whose pressed image on the shroud was first noticed by Alan Whanger in on the photographs of the shroud taken in He reported that the outlines of the flowering plants would point to March or April and the environs of Jerusalem.

Danin stated in , that: Thomas Litt who is an expert palynologist and has very sophisticated microscopic equipment.

Litt concluded that none of the pollen grains he saw could be named at a species level. Hence, all the conclusions drawn from previous palynological investigations of Dr.

Beaulieau has stated that Frei was a self-taught amateur palynologist , was not properly trained, and that his sample was too small.

In Avinoam Danin reported analysis based on the ultraviolet photographs of Miller and Pellicori [26] [27] taken in Danin reported five new species of flower, which also bloom in March and April and stated that a comparison of the black and white photographs and the ultraviolet images indicate that the flower images are genuine and not the artifact of a specific method of photography.

A study published in by Lorusso and others subjected two photographs of the shroud to detailed modern digital image processing, one of them being a reproduction of the photographic negative taken by Giuseppe Enrie in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or anything else on either image, they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in In , Italian researchers Barcaccia et al.

They examined the human and non-human DNA found when the shroud and its backing cloth were vacuumed in and Of the human mtDNA , sequences were found belonging to haplogroups that are typical of various ethnicities and geographic regions, including Europe, North and East Africa, the Middle East and India.

A few non-plant and non-human sequences were also detected, including various birds and one ascribable to a marine worm common in the Northern Pacific Ocean, next to Canada.

According to the scientists, "such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East.

Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth. In , a new examination claimed that "the most abundant pollen on the relic may be attribruted to the genus Helichrysum ".

According to the author, palynologist Marzia Boi, it "confirms and authenticates the theory that the corpse kept in the Shroud received a funeral and burial with all the honour and respect that would have been customary in the Hebrew tradition".

A number of studies on the anatomical consistency of the image on the shroud and the nature of the wounds on it have been performed, following the initial study by Yves Delage in In Pierre Barbet wrote a long study called A Doctor at Calvary which was later published as a book.

For over a decade, Frederick Zugibe performed a number of studies using himself and volunteers suspended from a cross, and presented his conclusions in a book in Zugibe concluded that the image on the shroud is of the body of a man, but that the body had been washed.

In , Pierluigi Baima Bollone, a professor of forensic medicine in Turin, stated that the forensic examination of the wounds and bloodstains on the Shroud indicate that the image was that of the dead body of a man who was whipped, wounded around the head by a pointed instrument and nailed at the extremities before dying.

Nickell, in , and Gregory S. Paul in , separately state that the proportions of the image are not realistic. Paul stated that the face and proportions of the shroud image are impossible, that the figure cannot represent that of an actual person and that the posture was inconsistent.

They argued that the forehead on the shroud is too small; and that the arms are too long and of different lengths and that the distance from the eyebrows to the top of the head is non-representative.

They concluded that the features can be explained if the shroud is a work of a Gothic artist. A study analysed the wounds seemingly evident on the image in the shroud and compared them favorably to the wounds which the gospels state were inflicted on Jesus.

Also, neither of the crucifixion victims known to archaeology show evidence of wrist wounds. Both art-historical, digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied to the shroud images.

A brightness map isometric display interprets differences of brightness within an image as differences of elevation — brighter patches are seen as being closer to the camera, and darker patches further away.

Our minds interpret these gradients as a "pseudo-three-dimensional image". The researchers could not replicate the effect when they attempted to transfer similar images using techniques of block print, engravings, a hot statue, and bas-relief.

If the object being photographed is lighted from the front, and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a contrast which is dependent on distance.

Researchers Jackson, Jumper, and Stephenson report detecting the impressions of coins placed on both eyes after a digital study in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or any other additional objects on the shroud in either photograph, they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in In , in an article in Journal of Optics A , Fanti and Maggiolo reported finding a faint second face on the backside of the cloth, after the restoration.

The front image of the Turin Shroud, 1. No wrinkles or other irregularities distort the image, which is improbable if the cloth had covered the irregular form of a body.

For comparison, see oshiguma ; the making of face-prints as an artform, in Japan. In Greek and Latin letters were reported as written near the face.

The uncertain letters IBE R? He stated that the inscriptions made little grammatical or historical sense and that they did not appear on the slides that Marion and Courage indicated.

In , Barbara Frale , a paleographer in the Vatican Secret Archives , who had published two books on the Shroud of Turin reported further analysis of the text.

Frale stated the text on the Shroud reads: A study by Lorusso et al. They did not find any signs, symbols or writing on either image, and noted that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, as well possibly as to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in Many hypotheses have been formulated and tested to explain the image on the Shroud.

According to pro-authenticity authors Baldacchini and Fanti, "the body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists", a conclusion also supported by Philip Ball.

The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in by Charles Lock Eastlake Methods and Materials of Painting of the Great Schools and Masters.

Eastlake describes in the chapter "Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to the image on the shroud.

Pro-authenticity journals have declared this hypothesis to be unsound, stating that X-ray fluorescence examination, as well as infrared thermography , did not reveal any pigment.

In , Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Pavia , announced that he had made a full size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin using only medieval technologies.

Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before being washed to remove the pigment.

He then added blood stains, scorches and water stains to replicate the original. The technique used by Garlaschelli included the bas relief approach described below but only for the image of the face.

The resultant image was visibly similar to the Turin Shroud, though lacking the uniformity and detail of the original. According to the art historian Nicholas Allen, the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century.

To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was supposedly made.

He described his results in his PhD thesis, [] in papers published in several science journals, [] [] and in a book. Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique, which could have been done by medieval arts.

They first did a carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face using collagen dust on a newsprint made from wood pulp which is similar to 13th- and 14th-century paper.

They next placed the drawing on a table and covered it with a piece of linen. They then pressed the linen against the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon.

By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and no sign of brush strokes.

Another hypothesis suggests that the Shroud may have been formed using a bas-relief sculpture. Last but not least, Real Madrid captain Sergio Ramos has built a reputation for finding the net when it matters most.

The Spain defender famously denied Atletico Madrid at the death of the final in Lisbon and his wealth of experience in the competition will be of enormous benefit to Los Blancos yet again.

UCL Eurowatch - Tottenham come back to draw Victory in the Canaries. UCL Real contingent predict tight final. Sporting CP and Barcelona Matches Last 16 in our sights Matches Barcelona-Juventus, Champions League Off the pitch Champions League returns to Turin.

Off the pitch Together for Juventus vs Tottenham in UCL Bayern meet the media. UCL Final training session at Vinovo before UCL Bianconeri Barcelona bound.

Champions League home knockout wins vs Real Madrid. This website uses cookies and, in some cases, third-party cookies for marketing purposes and to provide services in line with your preferences.

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He reported that the outlines of the flowering plants would point to March or April and the environs of Jerusalem.

Danin stated in , that: Thomas Litt who is an expert palynologist and has very sophisticated microscopic equipment. Litt concluded that none of the pollen grains he saw could be named at a species level.

Hence, all the conclusions drawn from previous palynological investigations of Dr. Beaulieau has stated that Frei was a self-taught amateur palynologist , was not properly trained, and that his sample was too small.

In Avinoam Danin reported analysis based on the ultraviolet photographs of Miller and Pellicori [26] [27] taken in Danin reported five new species of flower, which also bloom in March and April and stated that a comparison of the black and white photographs and the ultraviolet images indicate that the flower images are genuine and not the artifact of a specific method of photography.

A study published in by Lorusso and others subjected two photographs of the shroud to detailed modern digital image processing, one of them being a reproduction of the photographic negative taken by Giuseppe Enrie in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or anything else on either image, they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in In , Italian researchers Barcaccia et al.

They examined the human and non-human DNA found when the shroud and its backing cloth were vacuumed in and Of the human mtDNA , sequences were found belonging to haplogroups that are typical of various ethnicities and geographic regions, including Europe, North and East Africa, the Middle East and India.

A few non-plant and non-human sequences were also detected, including various birds and one ascribable to a marine worm common in the Northern Pacific Ocean, next to Canada.

According to the scientists, "such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East.

Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth. In , a new examination claimed that "the most abundant pollen on the relic may be attribruted to the genus Helichrysum ".

According to the author, palynologist Marzia Boi, it "confirms and authenticates the theory that the corpse kept in the Shroud received a funeral and burial with all the honour and respect that would have been customary in the Hebrew tradition".

A number of studies on the anatomical consistency of the image on the shroud and the nature of the wounds on it have been performed, following the initial study by Yves Delage in In Pierre Barbet wrote a long study called A Doctor at Calvary which was later published as a book.

For over a decade, Frederick Zugibe performed a number of studies using himself and volunteers suspended from a cross, and presented his conclusions in a book in Zugibe concluded that the image on the shroud is of the body of a man, but that the body had been washed.

In , Pierluigi Baima Bollone, a professor of forensic medicine in Turin, stated that the forensic examination of the wounds and bloodstains on the Shroud indicate that the image was that of the dead body of a man who was whipped, wounded around the head by a pointed instrument and nailed at the extremities before dying.

Nickell, in , and Gregory S. Paul in , separately state that the proportions of the image are not realistic. Paul stated that the face and proportions of the shroud image are impossible, that the figure cannot represent that of an actual person and that the posture was inconsistent.

They argued that the forehead on the shroud is too small; and that the arms are too long and of different lengths and that the distance from the eyebrows to the top of the head is non-representative.

They concluded that the features can be explained if the shroud is a work of a Gothic artist. A study analysed the wounds seemingly evident on the image in the shroud and compared them favorably to the wounds which the gospels state were inflicted on Jesus.

Also, neither of the crucifixion victims known to archaeology show evidence of wrist wounds. Both art-historical, digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied to the shroud images.

A brightness map isometric display interprets differences of brightness within an image as differences of elevation — brighter patches are seen as being closer to the camera, and darker patches further away.

Our minds interpret these gradients as a "pseudo-three-dimensional image". The researchers could not replicate the effect when they attempted to transfer similar images using techniques of block print, engravings, a hot statue, and bas-relief.

If the object being photographed is lighted from the front, and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a contrast which is dependent on distance.

Researchers Jackson, Jumper, and Stephenson report detecting the impressions of coins placed on both eyes after a digital study in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or any other additional objects on the shroud in either photograph, they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in In , in an article in Journal of Optics A , Fanti and Maggiolo reported finding a faint second face on the backside of the cloth, after the restoration.

The front image of the Turin Shroud, 1. No wrinkles or other irregularities distort the image, which is improbable if the cloth had covered the irregular form of a body.

For comparison, see oshiguma ; the making of face-prints as an artform, in Japan. In Greek and Latin letters were reported as written near the face.

The uncertain letters IBE R? He stated that the inscriptions made little grammatical or historical sense and that they did not appear on the slides that Marion and Courage indicated.

In , Barbara Frale , a paleographer in the Vatican Secret Archives , who had published two books on the Shroud of Turin reported further analysis of the text.

Frale stated the text on the Shroud reads: A study by Lorusso et al. They did not find any signs, symbols or writing on either image, and noted that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, as well possibly as to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in Many hypotheses have been formulated and tested to explain the image on the Shroud.

According to pro-authenticity authors Baldacchini and Fanti, "the body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists", a conclusion also supported by Philip Ball.

The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in by Charles Lock Eastlake Methods and Materials of Painting of the Great Schools and Masters.

Eastlake describes in the chapter "Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to the image on the shroud.

Pro-authenticity journals have declared this hypothesis to be unsound, stating that X-ray fluorescence examination, as well as infrared thermography , did not reveal any pigment.

In , Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Pavia , announced that he had made a full size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin using only medieval technologies.

Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before being washed to remove the pigment.

He then added blood stains, scorches and water stains to replicate the original. The technique used by Garlaschelli included the bas relief approach described below but only for the image of the face.

The resultant image was visibly similar to the Turin Shroud, though lacking the uniformity and detail of the original. According to the art historian Nicholas Allen, the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century.

To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was supposedly made.

He described his results in his PhD thesis, [] in papers published in several science journals, [] [] and in a book.

Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique, which could have been done by medieval arts.

They first did a carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face using collagen dust on a newsprint made from wood pulp which is similar to 13th- and 14th-century paper.

They next placed the drawing on a table and covered it with a piece of linen. They then pressed the linen against the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon.

By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and no sign of brush strokes.

Another hypothesis suggests that the Shroud may have been formed using a bas-relief sculpture. Researcher Jacques di Costanzo, noting that the Shroud image seems to have a three-dimensional quality, suggested that perhaps the image was formed using a three-dimensional object, such as a sculpture.

While wrapping a cloth around a life-sized statue would result in a distorted image, placing a cloth over a bas-relief would result in an image like the one seen on the shroud.

To demonstrate the plausibility of his hypothesis, Costanzo constructed a bas-relief of a Jesus-like face and draped wet linen over the bas-relief.

After the linen dried, he dabbed it with a mixture of ferric oxide and gelatine. The result was an image similar to that of the Shroud. Instead of painting, it has been suggested that the bas-relief could also be heated and used to scorch an image onto the cloth.

However researcher Thibault Heimburger performed some experiments with the scorching of linen, and found that a scorch mark is only produced by direct contact with the hot object — thus producing an all-or-nothing discoloration with no graduation of color as is found in the shroud.

According to Fanti and Moroni, after comparing the histograms of different grey levels, it was found that the image obtained with a bas-relief has grey values included between 60 and levels, but it is much contrasted with wide areas of white saturation levels included between and and lacks of intermediate grey levels levels included between and The face image on the Shroud instead has grey tonalities that vary in the same values field between 60 and , but the white saturation is much less marked and the histogram is practically flat in correspondence of the intermediate grey levels levels included between and The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid and a reducing sugar.

The cellulose fibers of the shroud are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various sugars , and other impurities.

In a paper entitled "The Shroud of Turin: The gases produced by a dead body are extremely reactive chemically and within a few hours, in an environment such as a tomb, a body starts to produce heavier amines in its tissues such as putrescine and cadaverine.

However the potential source for amines required for the reaction is a decomposing body, [91]: Mills argued that the image was formed by the chemical reaction auto-oxidation.

He noted that the image corresponds to what would have been produced by a volatile chemical if the intensity of the color change were inversely proportional to the distance from the body of a loosely draped cloth.

Since [] several researchers J. Rinaudo and others endorsed the flash-like irradiation hypothesis. It was suggested that the relatively high definition of the image details can be obtained through the energy source specifically, protonic acting from inside.

These theories do not include the scientific discussion of a method by which the energy could have been produced.

During restoration in , the back of the cloth was photographed and scanned for the first time. Giulio Fanti, a scientist at the University of Padua , wrote an article on this subject with colleagues in that envisages electrostatic corona discharge as the probable mechanism to produce the images of the body in the Shroud.

As with the front picture, it is entirely superficial, with coloration limited to the carbohydrate layer. The images correspond to, and are in registration with, those on the other side of the cloth.

No image is detectable in the reverse side of the dorsal view of the body. Raymond Rogers criticized the theory, saying: No such effects can be observed in image fibers from the Shroud of Turin.

In December , Fanti published a critical compendium of the major hypotheses regarding the formation of the body image on the shroud.

He stated that "none of them can completely explain the mysterious image". Fanti then considered corona discharge as the most probable hypothesis regarding the formation of the body image.

They demonstrated that the photochemical reactions caused by exposing linen to ultraviolet light could reproduce the main characteristics of the Shroud image, such as the shallowness of the coloration and the gradient of the color, which are not reproducible by other means.

When subsequently illuminated with a UV lamp, the irradiated linen fabrics behaved like the linen of the Shroud. They also determined that UV radiation changes the crystalline structure of cellulose in a similar manner as aging and long-duration background radiation.

Paolo Di Lazzaro, the lead researcher, indicated in an e-mail interview that " In November , F. They concluded that the rapid changes in the body image intensity are not anomalies in the manufacturing process of the linen but that they can be explained with the presence of aromas or burial ointments.

A study published in a theological journal followed a "Minimal Facts approach" to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process "is the most likely".

The study concluded "that the probability of the Shroud of Turin being the real shroud of Jesus of Nazareth is very high". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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History of the Shroud of Turin. Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin.

Religion portal Christianity portal Catholicism portal Italy portal. Retrieved 6 June Some twenty years ago this ecumenical dimension of this sacred linen became very evident to me on the night of August 16, , when local judicatory leaders offered their corporate blessing to the Turin Shroud Exhibit and participated in the Evening Office of the Holy Shroud.

Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition: Left Coast Press, , p. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 2 March An Archaeological Perspective, By R.

Retrieved 2 January Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the Shroud of Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history". Journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Retrieved 12 April Report on the Shroud of Turin. Architecture for the shroud: University of Chicago Press.

Journal of Biological Photography. Rinaldi, "Il Codice Pray", http: Componimenti poetici sulla Sindone. Bolla di papa Giulio II Carlo Borromeo a Torino The New York Times.

Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 30 March Making sense of a mystery " 31 March Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 9 May Address in Turin Cathedral Speech.

Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original on 11 June John Bosco - National Catholic Reporter". Retrieved 24 January Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research.

This paper is significant in that it was presented to the international radiocarbon community shortly before radiocarbon dating was performed on the shroud.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 10 September Ma Fanti li ha buoni…" [Shroud: Vatican Insider in Italian.

Inchieste e interviste [Inquests and interviews]. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 16 December Any team to reach this stage of the competition is usually brimming with quality and that is certainly the case for both Juventus and Real Madrid.

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